25 member states (Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Georgia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, the Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”, Turkey and Ukraine) do not legally recognise same-sex couples through marriage, partnership registration or cohabitation rights. Some of these member states (Bulgaria, Latvia, Moldova, Lithuania, Montenegro, Serbia, Ukraine and Romania) have specified that marriage is the prerogative of different-sex couples.
No access to joint adoption or second-parent adoption is a reality in 35 member states: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”, Turkey and Ukraine.
Ten member states allow second-parent adoption to same-sex couples (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). Apart from Finland and Germany these member states also give access to joint adoptions for same-sex couples. In Austria and France there is no access to second-parent adoption but same-sex couples in registered partnerships are allowed some parental authority or responsibilities.
*Read also: Groundbreaking Council of Europe report issues ‘red cards’ to many member states, incl. Armenia, for failing gay rights
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