Eastern Europe and Central Asia
An estimated 150 000 people [70 000—290 000] people were newly infected with HIV in 2007 bringing the number of people living with HIV in Eastern Europe and Central Asia to 1.6 million [1.2 million-2.1 million] compared to 630 000 [490 000-1.1 million] in 2001, a 150% increase over that time period.
Nearly 90% of newly reported HIV diagnoses in this region in 2006 were from two countries: the Russian Federation (66%) and Ukraine (21%). Elsewhere, the annual numbers of newly reported HIV diagnoses are also rising in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Republic of Moldova, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan (which now has the largest epidemic in Central Asia). Of the new HIV cases reported in 2006 in Eastern Europe and Central Asia for which there was information on the mode of transmission, nearly two thirds (62%) were attributed to injecting drug use and more than one third (37%) were ascribed to unprotected
- South Caucasus
Increasing numbers of new HIV cases are being reported in each of the Caucasian republics. In Georgia, more than half (60%) of the 1156 registered HIV cases to date were reported in the past three years (2004–2006), and the annual number of newly registered HIV infections has risen each year (EuroHIV, 2007).
Similar patterns are evident in Armenia’s smaller epidemic (EuroHIV, 2007), where most reported HIV infections have been among injecting drug users (almost all of them men). HIV prevalence of about 9% was found among injecting drug users, whereas prevalence of less than 2% was found among female sex workers (Armenian National AIDS Foundation, 2006).
Almost half (47%) of all HIV infections documented in Azerbaijan’s relatively recent epidemic were reported in 2005–2006 (EuroHIV,2007). Almost half of the HIV cases registered by 2006 were in the capital, Baku, where 13% of injecting drug users tested HIV-positive in a 2003 survey (WHO, 2006b). In addition, high prevalence of HIV (9%) and other sexually transmitted infections (9% syphilis and 63% chlamydia) has been found among female sex workers, among whom condom use appears to be infrequent (WHO, 2006b).
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